diy

Stuck Stuff: Removing tun-o-matic Bushings

Stuck Stuff: Removing tun-o-matic Bushings

It’s occurred to me that a lot of a guitar repairer’s time is spent removing things from guitars. Sometimes that just involves unscrewing some screws but, other times (often?), some additional effort and knowledge is required to safely remove something. 

Like various ‘bushings’. Read on…

Setting Intonation on a Fretless Bass

While all of intonation steps are the same for a fretless instrument as for one with frets, the fretless does present a minor challenge: 

No frets means no 'exact' point for the octave/12th fret position. 

While a good player good pitch can probably compensate for any notes that are a little out, it still makes sense to get the instrument properly setup and intonated. Without that exact octave position, though, where do we check intonation?

Simple. We install a temporary octave marker. 

Using tape to make a temproary '12th fret' to help intonate a fretless bass

Using tape to make a temporary octave marker to intonate a fretless bass.

To do this, you just need to halve the scale-length. So, for a 34" scale bass, our 12th fee position would sit exactly 17 inches from the 'near side' of the nut. Find that position and pop on a piece of masking tape to mark it. 

Then, set your intonation as normal (not forgetting the prerequisites).

The rest of your setup must be right for you before you start. Intonation is the last thing to set so get your action, relief, nut and pickups sorted out first. You should have fresh strings (of your usual gauge and brand) installed, properly stretched, and tuned up as normal.

Remember, always check intonation and tuning with the bass in the playing position (i.e. not lying on a table or counter but upright as if you were playing it).

Then proceed as usual:

  1. Pick the open string and verify it’s in tune.
  2. Fret at the 12th fret and pick this note. Compare it to the open string—is it flat or sharp?
  3. If the 12th fret note is flat, move the saddle forward a little using a flat or philips screwdriver as appropriate.
  4. If the 12th fret note is sharp, move the saddle back a little by turning the screw clockwise.
  5. Retune the open string and go back to 1.

Setting Intonation on a Floyd Rose

Intonation on Floyd Rose and Ibanez Edge variants

Ah, the Floyd Rose… The torment of Setter-Uppers the world over. There's no doubt that the double-locking tremolo does its intended job very well but they are a massive pain in the rump to set up. Anybody I know who does this for a living gives a little inward groan when a Floyd comes in for a setup. 

No sense complaining, though. Let's get to it and recap the intonation prerequisites.

By the way, for the most part, this intonation procedure applies to the Floyd variants as well as the Ibanez Edge variants.

The rest of your setup must be right for you before you start. Intonation is the last thing to set so get your action, relief, nut and pickups sorted out first. You should have fresh strings (of your usual gauge and brand) installed, properly stretched, and tuned up as normal.

Remember, always check intonation and tuning with the bass in the playing position (i.e. not lying on a table or counter but upright as if you were playing it).

The basic theory, as always, is this:

  1. Pick the open string and verify it’s in tune.
  2. Fret at the 12th fret and pick this note. Compare it to the open string—is it flat or sharp?
  3. If the 12th fret note is flat, move the saddle forward a little using a flat or philips screwdriver as appropriate.
  4. If the 12th fret note is sharp, move the saddle back a little by turning the screw clockwise.
  5. Retune the open string and go back to 1.

Now this basic theory is all well and good but a double-locking trem can have some idiosyncrasies that make it a bit more challenging. 

SADDLE LOCKING SCREW

On your Floyd, or similar bridge, the saddles are bolted to the bridge baseplate. In order to move a saddle back or forwards for intonation the saddle locking screw must first be loosened.

Location of saddle locking screws on Floyd and variants

Now, in order to gain access to get a hex key into the saddle locking screw, we need to slacken off that particular string. I know you'll be tempted to just push the string to the side but, if you try to make the adjustment without loosening the string, the tension will pull the saddle forward and you'll be unable to control how much it moves. 

With string tension slackened off, it's easy to just nudge the saddle back or forth.

After you've moved the saddle, you need to re-tighten the saddle locking screw, clamping the saddle to the baseplate again. This is necessary so that the saddle doesn't shift as you tune the string back up to pitch. To allow more adjustment range, each saddle-locking screw can be screwed into one of two holes—use the forward or rear screw-hole as needed to clamp down the saddle.

You need to do this, one string at a time, repeating the saddle movement until your intonation is where you want it. 

It's tedious but that's the price of a well-setup Floyd. There is a tool called 'The Key' that can help with original Floyds. More below.

Why can't i just dump the trem?

It is possible to avoid so much detuning and retuning by depressing the trem far enough down that the strings slacken and no longer pull on the saddle when you release the saddle lock screw. Of course, you have to hold it in this position as you make your adjustments.

If you can do this easily, go for it.

Personally, I find it a bit awkward. I don’t find any benefit in doing things this way and I feel it’s less risky to go the long way around.

INTONATION STEPS ON FLOYD ROSE-STYLE TREMOLO

So then, all of this adds to our intonation steps and makes our process as follows:

Note: All steps assume that the locking nut is NOT locked.

  1. Pick the open string and verify it’s in tune.
  2. Fret at the 12th fret and pick this note. Compare it to the open string—is it flat or sharp?
  3. If the 12th fret note is flat, slacken the string and loosen the saddle locking screw before moving the saddle forward a little.
  4. If the 12th fret note is sharp, slacken the string and loosen the saddle locking screw before moving the saddle back a little.
  5. Re-tighten the saddle locking screw to clamp the saddle back to the baseplate. Move the saddle locking screw to the forward or rear screw-hole as necessary to ensure adequate adjustment and a sound clamping.
  6. Tune that string back up to pitch, check tuning of the other strings (see below) and go back to 1.

Adjusting intonation on a Floyd Rose (using The Key in this instance). Allen wrench loosening saddle screw.

Keep checking your tremolo balance

If your bridge is floating or raised off the body, keep an eye on how it’s behaving as you proceed. If your saddles travel a lot during intonation, the overall tuning of the instrument and balance of the bridge can be affected.

Keep checking the tuning of the other strings as you go and, if they sharpen or flatten by much, adjust the tremolo spring tension (around the back) to bring them back to their original balance point. Loosening the screws holding the tremolo-claw/springs will lower string tension and tuning. Tightening the screws will raise overall tuning.

THE KEY INTONATION TOOL

If you have an Original Floyd Rose (or licensed OFR), there is a small, but handy, tool called The Key. 

The Key latches into place between the back of the bridge and the string-locking screw. Within limits, it allows you to set intonation under string tension.

The Key prevents the saddle pulling forward under string tension.

You fit the key and tension it so that the saddle doesn’t get pulled forward when you loosen the saddle locking screw (so youcan just push the string to the side rather than de-tuning it). Turning the adjustment on The Key allows you to move the saddle in a more controlled fashion.

The Key doesn’t work with anything other than the Original Floyd Rose style bridge. If you’ve another Floyd or an Edge or Lo-Pro you’re still de-and-re-tuning each time.

Also, The Key is better at ‘forwards’ movement (i.e. ‘with’ the string tension rather than against it) so it’s a good idea to set all of your saddles farther back before you start and move each forwards into position when you set intonation.

It’s not a panacea, but The Key can make a fiddly job slightly less fiddly.

Find The Key on Amazon: US | UK

Note: This Amazon link has my affiliate code attached. If you click it and buy stuff, Amazon gives me a few cents. It doesn’t cost you any more and it means that, every now and then, I get to buy some tea or something. If this bothers you, feel free to just search for the stuff yourself.

DOUBLE-LOCKING TREMOLO INTONATION QUIRKS

What? The detuning-loosening-moving-tightening-retuning-checking process isn’t quirky enough for you?

Ok, then…

Keep an eye on what hole the saddle lock screw is in. You’ll want it to make good contact with the saddle itself. I often see Floyds with a saddle barely clamped under a sliver of lock screw. You don’t want saddles slipping so move the screw to the hole that gives best purchase.

The nut deserves some serious consideration. Unlike a traditional nut, it’s not possible to set each string’s height individually. With your locking nut, the height has to be adjusted by inserting metal shims between it and the neck.

Since the height the strings sit in the nut plays a big part in intonation, it’s important to get it right. You can buy metal shims online (Stewart McDonald do a set of various thicknesses and you should have plenty of options if you Google ‘floyd rose shims’). You can stack different thickness of shim together to get things where you want.

Again, this is a bit fiddly and will probably involve some trial and error and a couple of tries.

SET INTONATION ON FLOYD ROSE SPEEDLOADER

The Floyd Rose Speedloader procedure is a little different. You can lock the trem in place before you start and each string can be slackened off by unlatching the string-saddle which means there’s not so much de/re-tuning involved.

Engage the tremolo stop.

  1. Pick the open string and verify it’s in tune.
  2. Fret at the 12th fret and pick this note. Compare it to the open string—is it flat or sharp?
  3. If the 12th fret note is flat, slacken the string by unlatching the saddle string release (as if you were changing the strings). Then loosen the saddle locking screw before moving the saddle forward a little.
  4. If the 12th fret note is flat, slacken the string by unlatching the saddle string release (as if you were changing the strings). Then loosen the saddle locking screw before moving the saddle back a little.
  5. Re-tighten the saddle locking screw to clamp the saddle back to the baseplate. Move the saddle locking screw to the forward or rear screw-hole as necessary to ensure adequate adjustment and a sound clamping.
  6. Re-latch the saddle (as if you’d just installed a new string) and tune that string back up to pitch Check tuning of the other strings (see below) and go back to 1.

Setting Intonation on a Jaguar, Jazzmaster, or Mustang

The Jaguar, Mustang, and Jazzmaster—sometimes called the Fender ‘offset’ guitars have individually adjustable saddles for setting each string’s intonation. The basic principles are as usual so let’s recap the prerequisites.

The rest of your setup must be right for you before you start. Intonation is the last thing to set so get your action, relief, nut and pickups sorted out first. You should have fresh strings (of your usual gauge and brand) installed, properly stretched, and tuned up as normal.

Remember, always check intonation and tuning with the bass in the playing position (i.e. not lying on a table or counter but upright as if you were playing it).

The basic theory, as always, is this:

  1. Pick the open string and verify it’s in tune.
  2. Fret at the 12th fret and pick this note. Compare it to the open string—is it flat or sharp?
  3. If the 12th fret note is flat, move the saddle forward a little using a flat or philips screwdriver as appropriate.
  4. If the 12th fret note is sharp, move the saddle back a little by turning the screw clockwise.
  5. Retune the open string and go back to 1.

Jazzmaster/Jaguar Bridge -Intonation by adjusting screws at rear

Mustang bridge - intonation by adjusting screws at rear

FLOAT THE BRIDGE IN THE RIGHT POSITION

Your Jag/Jazz/‘Stang bridge is designed to ‘float’. The bridge is intended to stand on its height-adjustment screws in the ‘thimbles’. The idea is that tremolo-use would rock the bridge back and forth so the strings wouldn’t have to slide across the saddles and tuning stability would be improved. For the most part, this works (as long as you’re not dive-bombing it).

Do remember, though, that this means you must set intonation with the bridge in the ‘proper’ position.

For most people, this means the bridge is sitting in the centre of the thimbles—at right angles to the body—with room to rock backwards and forwards.

Comparison of bridge 'orientations' for Jaguar, Jazzmaster, Mustang

OR FLOAT THE BRIDGE IN THE ‘WRONG’ POSITION

That said, there are players (and repair people) who like to push the bridge against the back of the thimbles so it’s ‘default’ position is angled towards the back of the guitar.

The advantage of this is that there’s a positive stop point. If you ever feel that your intonation or tuning is out, you can give the bridge a nudge backwards to ensure it’s where it’s supposed to be. The disadvantage is that, while down-bends on the trem will rock the bridge, up-bends mean the strings move across the saddles (which is what Leo was trying to avoid).

In practice, I don’t find any major additional tuning issues with the bridge angled back so, if you want to try it, go for it.

Whichever way you choose, set your intonation with the bridge in that position and, if you change, you’ll have to reset intonation.

JAGUAR/JAZZMASTER/MUSTANG INTONATION QUIRKS

  • If your bridge floats upright, give things a check every now and then to ensure it’s returning where it should. You’ll likely notice tuning issues if they occur when you're actually using the trem but, if you don’t use the trem much, your bridge might get shifted to angle back or forwards without your realising. Keep an eye on it.
  • Some offset guitars now come with tun-o-matic bridges installed. No problem. Check out the tun-o-matic intonation instructions.

BRIDGE UPGRADES

The standard Jaguar/Jazzmaster bridge isn’t brilliant. It’s got threaded-bar saddles that aren’t great for tuning, or for holding strings. The height adjustment screws in the saddles can often vibrate loose, rattling about and messing things up.

If possible, a lot of players swap in a Mustang bridge instead. The Mustang bridge is a bit more solid. It’s got brass ‘barrel’ saddles with a preset radius and no individual saddle height adjustment. The problem is that, as standard, it only comes with a 7.25” radius. Some Jags and Jazzmasters are fine with this but some have the more modern, 9.5” radius on their fingerboards.

Warmoth sell a ‘Modified Mustang’ bridge with some saddle height adjustment and this can be a good option. StayTrem also make a Mustang style bridge that is available in either 7.25” or 9.5”. They’re nice bridges

MASTERY BRIDGE

And of course, there’s the Mastery Bridge. This is a redesign of the original offset guitar bridge that’s pretty well thought out. It doesn’t float in the same way as the original but the enhanced coupling and the bridge’s solidity make for good tone.

Setting Intonation On A Mastery Bridge

The Mastery bridge has two saddle-pieces, each holding three strings (one for wound and one for unwound). Each saddle-piece is adjustable for overall angle rather than having each string adjustable.

Two screws on each saddle-piece alter its intonation angle. Since you’re adjusting the overall intonation of three strings, the Mastery intonation may not be as ‘exact’ as if each string were individually adjustable.

That said, because we have one saddle piece for wound and one for unwound strings, in practice, it’s pretty good. If you play with a wound G string, you might have some difficulties balancing that string's intonation but I suspect that’s a pretty small percentage of readers.

Here’s how I set intonation on a Mastery.

  • Set your intonation for the first string.
  • Then set the third string intonation.
  • Check the second string intonation. If all three strings are pretty close, you’re done. If one is out, you can adjust the overall angle to ‘balance out the differences’ in the same way you might for a three-saddle Telecaster.
  • Follow the same pattern with the wound strings (4, then 6, then 5)

Turning adjustment screws alters overall angle (and intonation) for three strings at a time